Beyond the Singularity


2024.03.16 Sat04.07 Sun


(Closed on Mondays; Free Admission)


UG/F, Landmark South, 39 Yip Kan Street, Wong Chuk Hang


The swift advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) in recent years signifies a paradigm shift as transformative as the invention of the internet or the industrial revolution. Beyond the Singularity embarks on an exploration of this dynamic and complex narrative of AI, highlighting its current implications for its profound potential and the significant ethical, societal, economic and regulatory challenges it introduces. As the first comprehensive exhibition in Hong Kong where diverse artists employ AI tools to create entirely new works, this project aspires to establish a benchmark in AI technology usage while simultaneously questioning the role and relevance of humanity in the context of the advancing integration of intelligent machine within the realm of art.

The exhibition, titled Beyond the Singularity, draws inspiration from a science fiction anthology edited by Jack Dann and Gardner Dozois. Featuring stories published between 1960 and 2004, this book presents a vision of tomorrow, particularly in how super-intelligent systems will have advanced to the point that they result in unforeseeable changes to human civilisation. The term “singularity” was initially introduced by Albert Einstein in 1915 to describe the centre of a black hole characterised by infinite density and gravity. It was then adopted by mathematician John von Neumann and popularised by science fiction author Vernor Vinge to designate a hypothetical future when AI advancements reach an infinite self-improvement loop, leading to unprecedented changes. In 2005, computer scientist and futurist Ray Kurzweil incorporated the term “singularity” in his book, predicting that computers will surpass the cognitive abilities of humans by 2045, resulting in breakthroughs in various fields in a manner that humans cannot currently comprehend or predict. 

Here and now in 2024, the concept of reaching the “singularity” has evolved beyond a mere figment of science fiction imagination; it is becoming a plausible future outcome. The pace of AI development is accelerating at breakneck speed, and the future integration of AI across various sectors, including healthcare, finance, transportation and entertainment, challenges conventional frameworks in numerous fields. As AI redefines the nature of work, security and human cognition, it raises critical questions about job displacement, data privacy and the ethical decision-making capability implied by AI. For instance, AI automation, with its capacity for relentless work, being free from illness, and not demanding wages, is well-equipped to become the workforce in numerous industries. As we step into an era where digital data increasingly permeates every aspect of our lives, we find ourselves, both willingly and unavoidably, gearing up for major societal transformations in the decades ahead. 

The advent of AI is not only impacting our daily routines but also radically reshaping the artistic landscape. AI offers unique tools that artists can experiment with, pushing the boundaries of art. It generates visuals, composes music, crafts poetry, critiques art and creates immersive experiences, serving as an unconventional collaborator that stimulates creativity. AI algorithms are capable of generating endlessly varied and unique works, prompting profound questions about the nature and definition of art itself. The discourse surrounding AI potentially replacing artists is multifaceted and continually evolving. While valid concerns and objections exist, there is also recognition of AI’s potential to enhance the artistic process in previously unimaginable ways. The future of AI in art is likely to remain a dynamic and hotly debated topic. 

This exhibition brings together artists from a variety of disciplines, including ink art, western painting, photography, music, lyric writing, performance and arts criticism, many of whom do not typically incorporate technology into their practice. By introducing them to AI tools through workshops and months-long tutorials, as well as collaborations with AI experts, this exhibition explores how AI technology can potentially push the boundaries of these artists’ works based on their existing practices from different trajectories. The process-oriented approach aligns with the exhibition’s core concept, which revolves around questioning what ultimately art is, especially if machines can think and create like artists. Over the course of several months, this process leads to the artists raising philosophical questions on a wide array of topics, including the limits of language, AI’s influence on culture, the blurring line between reality and artificiality, authorship, free will, human-machine collaboration, originality in art and AI’s inherent limitations.

In this exhibition, we are witnessing a fascinating convergence where the roles of the artists, the AI experts and the intelligent machines are becoming increasingly intertwined, disrupting the conventional boundaries within the art world. This collaborative dynamic forms a unique triad that reshapes our understanding of authorship. The fusion of art with AI-generated technology has necessitated that artists develop technical expertise, while programmers and computers, driven by AI algorithms, actively participate in the creative and interpretive facets of artistic production. Besides, AI experts provide thematic guidance and practical tips, facilitating more intricate interactions between artists and machines. This type of interaction between artists and AI experts not only reshapes artistic methods but also obscures established roles within the realm of artistic production. It raises intriguing questions: Are the AI experts considered the artists behind the exhibited works in this context? Or could it be that the AI itself is the artist in this exhibition?

As the curator of this exhibition, I am navigating a new level of complexity throughout the journey. This exhibition is redefining curatorial approaches by adopting complex, collaborative experiences, thereby enriching the interplay between humans and machines and intensifying discussions around curatorial tactics. Reflecting on this, I realise that curating this exhibition would not have been feasible without working directly with AI experts. The possibilities within this exhibition are not determined solely by my decisions, but are also significantly influenced by the capabilities of AI technologies and the creative input from both the AI experts and artists. Throughout the extensive process of curating this exhibition, I, along with the artists, designers and AI experts involved in this project, have been continuously learning various AI tools. Everything from the exhibition’s statements, curatorial themes, artworks, visual designs and promotional materials is either generated or facilitated by AI, representing a groundbreaking experiment in the practice of exhibition-making.

I extend my gratitude to the Hong Kong Arts Development Council for providing the platform to embark on this extensive exploration of art and AI technology. My sincere appreciation goes to the artists, AI experts and the exhibition designer involved in this project, who have courageously learned new things, experimented with ideas, and prompted critical reflections on the profound implications that technology might hold for our imminent future. This exhibition represents just the opening chapter in a much larger narrative. As AI systems grow in complexity and become more woven into the fabric of human existence, they usher in a spectrum of profound existential inquiries that are just beginning to unfold. What will the future of human creativity look like? How will our understanding of art and expression evolve as machines become more intelligent and autonomous? These are the questions we invite you to ponder as you journey through Beyond the Singularity.

(This written statement is a product of a collaborative effort between human creativity and AI-assisted writing. The original text is written in English.)


Isaac Leung

A practising artist, curator, and scholar in art and culture. 

In 2003, Leung received an Honorary Fellowship in Bachelor of Fine Arts at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Over the last few decades, he initiated and participated in various projects including exhibitions, workshops, lectures, publications, online projects, and symposia. Some of these projects include 40 Years of Video Art, Venice Biennale International Architecture Exhibition, Time Test – International Video Art Research Exhibition, ISEA Festival, Both Sides Now, Loop Barcelona, One World Exposition, China Remixed, Clockenflap, and Art Basel Crowdfunding Initiative. Leung is currently an Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Arts at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.


Prof Kurt Chan Yuk-keung was graduated from the Department of Fine Arts, the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He then obtained his Master of Fine Arts from the Cranbrook Academy of Art, Michigan in the US. Prof Chan joined the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1989, teaching studio courses and supervising Bachelor and Master students. He was the Acting Director of Hong Kong Art School from 2019 to 2021.

Born in Hong Kong in 1961, Chow studied in Department of English Language and Department of Comparative Literature at the University of Hong Kong. After moving to the Netherlands in 1992, Chow received his PhD degree from the Amsterdam School of Communication Research, University of Amsterdam. Currently a Professor in the Department of Humanities and Creative Writing at Hong Kong Baptist University, and he is also an award-winning writer. He released his first lyrics in 1989, and since then has penned more than 1,000 lyrical works and proses such as Suddenly, Decades Ago; 7749, Phobia, A long long farewell and One Body, Two People. Lately, Chow has been increasingly involved in prose writing, multi-media, and visual art projects.

Born in Hong Kong in 1980, Dr Chui apprenticed under Mr Jat See-yeu and Prof Wang Dong-ling. He obtained his first degree from Department of Fine Arts at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and furthered his postgraduate studies at the Department of Chinese Calligraphy of China Academy of Art, where he achieved his Master of Arts and Doctoral Degree.

Dr Chui has imparted his expertise at various local universities  and the Chinese Paintings and Calligraphy Department of China Guardian (HK) Auctions Co., Ltd. Currently, he is an executive member of The Jiazi Society of Calligraphy and a research fellow of Modern Calligraphy Research Center of China Academy of Art.

Dr Chui received the Young Artist Award in Hong Kong Contemporary Art Awards 2012 and was also honoured with the Award for Young Artist (Visual Arts) at the Hong Kong Arts Development Awards 2015. He was a finalist of The Sovereign Asian Art Prize 2015, 2018, and 2020. His artworks have been collected by the Hong Kong Museum of Art, Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology of University of Oxford and private collectors.

Hong Kong-based conceptual artist. Mak2 received her Bachelor of Arts degree from the School of Creative Media, City University of Hong Kong in 2013. Her artistic practice contemplates 21st century issues through the study of philosophy, art history, culture, evolving socio-political environments, the internet, and new technologies. Her aesthetic experience is characterised by the dualism of humour and intense inquisitiveness. She creates installations, paintings, drawings, video works, YouTube videos, stand-up comedy routines, and Instagram filters. Her artworks have been exhibited internationally, including Los Angeles, London, Beijing, Dallas, Lisbon, and etc.

*Artist portrait and biography courtesy of DE SARTHE

So graduated with first class honour, Bachelor of Arts in Photographic Design from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. He has worked as a lecturer at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the Hong Kong Art School. Currently he served as a part-time lecturer at the Department of Fine Arts of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. 

His works have been showcased in Paris, Berlin, New York,  Toronto, Hong Kong and numerous cities in China, and features in the collections of the Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hong Kong Heritage Museum, City University of Hong Kong and private collectors. So has also collaborated on art and photography projects with renowned international brands, including Louis Vuitton, United Colours of Benetton, Fujifilm, and Olympus.

He was awarded a fellowship from the Asian Cultural Council in 1995 and the Fellowship for Artistic Development by the Hong Kong Arts Development Council in 1998. In 1997 and 1999, So received the Judges Award and seven Gold Awards by the Hong Kong Institute of Professional Photographers. He also won the Prize of Excellence at the Hong Kong Art Biennial in 2001. Recently, he is honoured as the Artist of the Year (Visual Arts) from the 17th Hong Kong Arts Development Awards in 2023.

Freelance writer with a background spanning design and cultural anthropology, conduct design, art and visual cultural studies in Hong Kong. From 2002 to 2011, Wong worked in the research department at Asia Art Archive. She also co-founded the Community Museum Project, a curatorial collective dedicated to revisit indigenous creativity and underrepresented histories and practices of everyday life. As a cultural worker, she contemplates what she can do for culture between reflection and labour. Her articles have been published in art plus, Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art, Asia Art Archive and the International Association of Theatre Critics (Hong Kong).

Graduated from Fine Arts Department at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. In summer 2023, Wong had the privilege of being the Artist-in-Residence and Visiting Fellow in Art at Jesus College, University of Oxford.

Landscapes are the key motif throughout Wong’s paintings. His early paintings are sourced from scenes from video games in order to highlight the visual impact of virtual worlds. In recent years, Wong goes to natural parts of Hong Kong and paints in open air. By adding his own imagination, the paintings reveal the relationship between mankind and nature.

Wong’s paintings are collected by local and overseas private collectors, and institutions such as Jesus College of the University of Oxford, Hong Kong Museum of Art, Hongkong Land, and Swire Group.

David Chan is a freelance theatre practitioner graduated from the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts with a major in Acting. Chan previously served as a full-time actor and teacher at Alice Theatre Laboratory.

He received the 14th Hong Kong Theatre Libre Outstanding Lead Actor Award for his performance in Chan Yu-hang’s work, …As Always. During his studies, he was honoured with the Outstanding Actor Award for his role in Pornography and was awarded scholarships to participate in exchange programmes at the Royal Central School of Speech and Drama in London and the Texas Tech University in the United States.

He is also a member of Table to-gather 2023-25 of the On & On Theatre Workshop.

A versatile freelance theatre practitioner, Lo excels in playwriting, directing, theatre criticism, and lyrics writing. Lo graduated from the University of Hong Kong and School of Drama at the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts (HKAPA). 

Lo’s graduate production project Der goldene Drache garnered him the Outstanding Director Award from School of Drama, HKAPA. He received nominations for Best Director (Comedy/Farce) at the Hong Kong Drama Awards, Best Director at the Hong Kong Theatre Libre and Performance of the Year at the IATC(HK) Critics Awards 2021 for this production. 

Lo is a member of Table to-gather 2023-25 of the On & On Theatre Workshop. He also co-founded Theatre Formula, dedicated to playwriting and directing.

Kwok Mang-ho is a renowned multimedia artist popularly known as Frog King. Kwok was born in Guangdong in 1947 and grew up in Hong Kong. From 1980 to 1984, he pursued studies at the Art Students League in New York, where he immersed himself in “Art Life” for 15 years before returning to Hong Kong in 1995. Over the course of his career spanning more than five decades, Kwok has produced a diverse range of artworks, including conceptual pieces, performances, sculptures, paintings, and installations. He has actively participated in more than 5,000 art events worldwide since 1967.

Kwok’s artistic concept centres around two key concepts: “Yum Dimension” and “Frog Fun Lum”. He employs the motif of  “Frog” in his works, continually exploring multi-dimensional and mixed media to embody the idea - “Art is Frog”. His creativity has evolved through two-dimensional painting, reliefs, sculptures, environments, space, time and happenings to live art, which then returned to the free spirit of an “ordinary heart”. In the process, Kwok has discovered the “Yum Dimension” – any volume, form, medium, idea or dimension in which art can be created, focusing on the ideas of “Time as Art” and “Art as Play”.

Frog Queen, Cho Hyun Jae, was born in Korea and currently resides in Hong Kong and Korea. Cho graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from the College of Fine Arts, Duk Sung Women’s University in 1987 and obtained a Master of Education degree from the Graduate School of Arts Education, Dong Kuk University in 1992.

Her artistic practices include paintings, videos, installations, photography and performance art, etc. Since she married Frog King in 1997, they have collaborated on numerous art projects and international art exhibitions around the world, including Hong Kong, Beijing, Berlin, London, Seoul and Singapore, etc. Cho has served as an assistant curator for the Hong Kong Pavilion of the Venice Biennale 2011.

Cho received the Grand Prix from the Incheon Grand Art Exhibition (Korea) and the 4th Sea Art Festival (Korea) in 1990. In 1992, she was awarded the Prize of “Peace and Friendship” at the 4th International Asian European Arts Biennial (Turkey). Additionally, she received an Honorable Mention from the Hong Kong Visual Arts Festival, Hong Kong Museum of Arts and Confederation of Hong Kong Visual Artists in 1999.

An artist duo comprising Joseph Chen and Cas Wong in 2020. Taking their name from an old public housing estate in Kowloon City where Chen’s grandmother resided. Virtue Village rooted their practice in contemporary spirituality, transforming found objects, environment, and the body into vessels for parabiotic communion. Tapping into the multifaceted definitions of ascension, they navigate the realms of collective queer subculture, fetish, and transhumanism.

They have exhibited works and screened films at Tai Kwun Contemporary, Art Basel Hong Kong, Hong Kong Arts Centre and Videotage, and etc. In 2021, they organised a performance platform cum exhibition titled Living Body Orifice in Hong Kong.

*Photo courtesy to PHD Group

AI Experts

Graduated from the School of Journalism and Communication at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Subsequently, he co-founded Arctic, a production house with clients such as HSBC, Philips, Accenture, and Ricoh.

As a versatile multimedia professional, Chan has ventured into diverse fields including commercial and independent visual production, online media, generative artificial intelligence, virtual reality imaging, and app development. He also served as a board member for Videotage and as a guest lecturer at various universities. Moreover, Chan founded Let’s Create Academy, an educational enterprise imparting training in digital media technology applications. Committed to advancing the application and popularisation of generative artificial intelligence in digital media and creative sectors.

James Kong King-sin graduated from the School of Creative Media at City University of Hong Kong with a Bachelor of Science degree. As an interactive media engineer with deep interests in human-computer interaction and multimedia techniques, he is dedicated to exploring computational media’s potential within theatre.

With programming expertise and a focus on innovation, Kong has lent his versatile skills to numerous exhibitions and interactive installations. He demonstrates proficiency in leveraging generative artificial intelligence, especially Stable Diffusion and MidJourney techniques, as well as crafting immersive mixed reality experiences.

The Crew

Presented byPresented by

Hong Kong Arts Development Council

Curator Curator

Isaac Leung


Kurt Chan Yuk-keung
Chow Yiu-fai
Chui Pui-chee
So Hing-keung
Phoebe Wong
Stephen Wong Chun-hei
David Chan & Kingston Lo
Frog King & Frog Queen
Virtue Village

Project CoordinatorProject Coordinator

Paris Tsoi

AI ExpertsAI Experts

Chan Ka-ming
James Kong

Graphic, Spatial Design and BuildGraphic, Spatial Design and Build


Creative DirectorCreative Director

Chilai Howard

Spatial SpecialistSpatial Specialist

Harriet Chan
Ivy Lok

Design SpecialistDesign Specialist

Tung Kam
Kaikai Tsoi


Moving Image Studio

AI script DoctorAI script Doctor


On & On Theatre Workshop

I became a singer-songwriter when I turned 62I became a singer-songwriter when I turned 62

Artist’s Vocal AI

Ng Cheuk-yin
Vocal Technical Support

VX Real Limited

Matthew Tong
Image support 

Kathy Ng 
Research support 

Chan Sze-long
Yvette Wong

In Search of Art Criticism: Writing Without WritingIn Search of Art Criticism: Writing Without Writing

Video Production

Joe Yiu 
Chung Wing-shan
Data Processing

Karen Hui

Vicki Lam

To Wing-nam 
*Special thanks to Asia Art Archive for their assistance with this project.

  • Hong Kong Arts Development Council reserves the right to add, withdraw or substitute artists and/ or vary advertised programmes. In case of dispute, the decision of HKADC is final.

  • Hong Kong Arts Development Council supports freedom of artistic expression. The views and opinions expressed in this programme do not represent the stand of the Council.

    1. The opening hours of the exhibition are from 12:00 pm to 7:00 pm throughout the exhibition period (closed on Mondays).
    2. Free admission.
    3. Children below the age of 12 must be always accompanied by an adult for safety reasons.
    4. Please do not push, shake, lean or climb on the scaffold to avoid accidents.
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